Chinese 'bonsai' are known as penjing. They often include the use of rocks and stones in their design. When using rocks, they may be a plant with root over rock, rocks in landscape or even rocks alone!
This pavilion is named in honor of Dr. Yee-sun Wu (1905-1995) who was a wealthy Hong Kong banker and major collector. His collection numbered over 300 trees and miniature landscapes.
Dr. Wu not only donated many of his trees, but he graciously funded the pavilion to house them. In 1988, the then U.S. National Arboretum Director, Dr. H. Marc Cathey accepted the gift and referred to the Museum for the first time as:
“The National Bonsai & Penjing Museum.”
The following quote talks about the basic difference between Japanese bonsai and Chinese, and how the Chinese have included rocks, stones as a natural part of Chinese design.
Root or perhaps young trunk tucked in rock by Dr. Yee-sun Wu. As it aged, it melded to the rock and looks very natural.
Amazing Trident Maple was grown as a root-over-rock style.
You can see in this close-up of the roots, how they have become attached to the tall rock.
Read more about "Chinese bonsai trees"