Ten Steps to Good Bonsai
These “Ten Steps to Good Bonsai” are about creating a better collection.
The steps are divided into two parts.
The first five steps are best applied before acquiring a tree.
However, they are still valid when refining or purging a collection.
Steps six through ten are ongoing.
At the end, I have included a few miscellaneous but important notes.
These steps may be new thoughts for novices, but hopefully they serve as reminders to others.
Selecting a Tree
1. Tree Choices - Use proven species as good bonsai subjects. Let someone else try weird and strange trees from other zones.
If you want to experiment, try plants from your area that others may have passed by. First, ask around. There may be a good reason that plant is not being used.
- Small leaves, small flowers and/or proportionate fruit are standard guidelines for good bonsai. Use them.
There are some exceptions. Sea grape, for example, has proven to be an easy-to-reduce large leaf subject.
- 2. Branching and Taper - When creating your own tree, lots of branches mean lots of choices, that’s good. If you are purchasing a “finished” bonsai, major branches should already be where they belong.
Taper in trunk and branches is a huge asset. Taper is part of
what gives a “tree-look” to your bonsai. Most of the time, you can
tell how the taper will appear when mature, even in juvenile trees.
- 3. Nebari - is a Japanese word. It refers to the lower trunk and surface roots. Good nebari is a major asset in designing a quality bonsai.
No matter how well you have placed the branches, no matter how
old the plant is, without good “nebari” your tree will never be
considered a great bonsai.
- 4. Size of Bonsai - Select a tree that you can handle.
Very small trees (shohin) don’t take up much space.
However, they are more difficult to create as good bonsai and they do require more attention ... including more frequent watering.
If you have ‘ready helpers’, large trees may not be a
However, be forewarned: friends, kids and other family members
will quickly tire of hauling, lifting and helping repot your huge
These larger bonsai are often categorized as "two-man" and "three-man" trees for good reason!
A medium size - one you can lift - works best for most people. Place your bonsai at a comfortable height for working. (Smaller trees need to be higher.)
As in other art forms, the closer to eye level the easier to enjoy ... and work. Bonsai kept at or near ground level are regularly neglected.
- 5. Make better investments - Whether shopping for starters or old trees, buy better material.
Good bonsai subjects are often costly ... because someone else has put in the time, knowledge and money!
Judge the tree by the guidelines above and remember, expensive, does not necessarily mean better! Examine trees closely. First appearances can be deceiving. Beautiful
flowers on a stick, albeit it a fat stick, do not make a good bonsai. Good health seems like obvious criteria, but sometimes sickly
bargains cry out to be taken home. When you start with a tree that
already has problems, you are taking a risk. Your money and time are
Develop and Maintain
- 6. Understand Certainties - Expect your bonsai to change. No bonsai ever stays the same! If you have done Steps 1-5 properly, the changes should be for the better.
Watch for opportunities to have a new branch in a better
location or perhaps remove an old one. Be aware of exposed roots headed
in the wrong direction - treat them as branches. Eliminate criss-crossing roots early on!
Another certainty is weeds. Weeds will appear and must be removed including roots. Don’t even think about weed killers (e.g. Roundup) in containers. Many people have found pre-emergents helpful.
- 7. Trim, Trim, Trim. No excuses. It is important to keep your trees trimmed. Learn how to directional prune!
If you’re not sure where to cut ... at least “hedge prune”.
(Next time you walk by a hedge, observe how dense the branches are.) This type of pruning will give you many options when you are ready to prune more
- 8. Wire - Learn to wire properly. If you
are likely to forget to remove wire, consider “tie-downs”. Not quite as
perfect for placement, but certainly better than nothing. If done
right, “tie-downs” can be an easy way to get a branch started in the right direction.
Eventually, to have fine bonsai, you will have to wire! Remove wire before damage ruins an otherwise good tree.
Don’t be the one that everyone looks at your bonsai and says “beautiful but ...” Yes, we will see the scars.
- 9. Roots - Get to know your tree’s root
system. Some trees prefer to have somewhat “tight feet” (junipers for
one). Others, such as Fukien Tea, decline if kept in a root-bound
condition. Ask experienced people for advice. What time of year to
prune? How often? Should you comb out the roots? What about sawing
the root mass? Not all plants are the same.
- 10. Refine Your Collection - At least once a year, give your collection a serious critique. If you can’t be honest, hire someone to do it for you.
Sort out any trees you no longer love and ones that have no future. (Best done around club auction time.) Don’t worry about “getting your money back”. If they gave you pleasure and hopefully many lessons, you got your money’s worth.
Additional Good Bonsai Tips
If you are creating bonsai and don’t own John Naka’s ‘Bonsai Techniques I’ and ‘Bonsai Techniques II’, order both books today!
Nourish your trees frequently. Follow instructions on any
for “outdoor potted plants” or "indoor potted plants" (depending on your
collection). No need to get creative by diluting and/or changing the
The ‘perfect soil’ is the one that works for you. Take advice from growers in your area. However, do not transplant your trees every time someone has a new idea.
Last but not least, when styling or changing a shape
use your ‘Magic Cloth'. You may be surprised at just how helpful it is in creating good bonsai.
Where to Go From Here
If you are a beginner consider, the page on Basic Bonsai Styles
Leave Ten Steps to Good Bonsai and Return to Bonsai Articles.